South University NSG 5003 Final Exam-1 (Advanced Pathophysiology)

Question 1
Which component of the cell produces hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) by using oxygen to remove hydrogen atoms from specific substrates in an oxidative reaction?
Question 1 options:
Question 2
What is a consequence of plasma membrane damage to the mitochondria?
Question 2 options:
Enzymatic digestion halts deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) synthesis.
Influx of calcium ions halts adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production.
Edema from an influx in sodium causes a reduction in ATP production.
Potassium shifts out of the mitochondria, which destroys the infrastructure.
Question 3
Which statement is a description of one of the characteristics of apoptosis?
Question 3 options:
Apoptosis involves programmed cell death of scattered single cells.
Apoptosis is characterized by the swelling of the nucleus and the cytoplasm.
Apoptosis involves unpredictable patterns of cell death.
Apoptosis results in benign malignancies.
Question 4
During cell injury caused by hypoxia, sodium and water move into the cell because:
Question 4 options:
The pump that transports sodium out of the cell cannot function because of a decrease in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels.
The osmotic pressure is increased, which pulls additional sodium across the cell membrane
Oxygen is not available to bind with sodium to maintain it outside of the cell.
Question 5
What is an effect of ionizing radiation exposure?
Question 5 options:
Respiratory distress
Sun intolerance